Inside this Chapter
- APPENDIX A – BTOP PROGRESS ASSESSMENT
- APPENDIX B – COMMON ABBREVIATIONS
- APPENDIX C – GLOSSARY
- APPENDIX D – LIST OF WORKSHOPS AND FIELD HEARINGS
- APPENDIX E – LIST OF NATIONAL BROADBAND PLAN CONTRIBUTORS
- APPENDIX ENDNOTES
APPENDIX A – BTOP PROGRESS ASSESSMENT
In addition to directing the FCC to develop a plan to ensure that all Americans have access to broadband, Congress also directed the FCC to evaluate the progress of projects supported by grants under the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)’s Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP). This section considers the program so far and makes recommendations for future evaluation—as BTOP has only just funded some projects.
This plan acknowledges the substantial investment BTOP is making to improve connectivity and advance the adoption of broadband. Chapters 8 and 9 make specific mentions of this important program and how it likely will improve the broadband ecosystem. Careful evaluation of BTOP investments will provide insights into the effectiveness of different funding mechanisms, project structures and technologies for future investments.
- Ensure that assessment tracks program outcomes, not only execution.
- Develop measures that specify outcomes to be assessed.
- Create a panel of experts from the academic and research community to advise on assessment approaches.
- Employ longitudinal design in assessing programs where possible.
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) appropriated $7.2 billion to fund programs to promote the adoption and deployment of broadband. NTIA was charged with using $4.7 billion of these funds to create BTOP which funds three types of programs:
- Infrastructure projects that aim to deploy broadband infrastructure in unserved and underserved areas.
- Projects that enhance the capacity of public computing centers (PCCs).
- Efforts to support the sustainable adoption of broadband service by users.
Infrastructure projects are set to receive the bulk of this funding. With regard to the latter two types of programs, Congress specifically stated that NTIA should spend $250 million on “innovative programs that encourage sustainable adoption of broadband services” and spend at least $200 million "to upgrade technology and capacity at public computing centers, including community colleges and public libraries."1
Funds are being disbursed in two rounds. Applications for the first round were due Aug. 14, 2009. As of mid-February 2010, the BTOP program had awarded $597 million in grants:
- $547 million for infrastructure projects;
- $42 million for PCC projects; and
- $8 million for sustainable adoption programs.2
Applications for the second round of funding were due on March 15, 2010. The Recovery Act directs that all funds be awarded by Sept. 30, 2010.
Programs Funding Infrastructure Deployment
BTOP infrastructure grants are intended to promote community and economic development by connecting community anchor institutions—such as public schools, universities, libraries, and community colleges—to high-speed infrastructure. Many funded grantees promote connectivity in the middle mile.3 By solving the middle-mile problem, the hope is to foster investment in "last mile" facilities to provide service to individuals and institutions that need it.
Most grantees leverage in-kind or financial contributions, not relying solely on BTOP support to complete projects.
Public Computing Centers
Grants for PCCs will provide funding for additional computers for institutions such as public housing developments, typically with the goal of offering training and access for community members. The FCC recently announced a grant for the Housing Authority of San Bernardino, Calif. which aims to serve 350 additional users per week. On a larger scale, a grant awarded to the New York State Education Department intends to serve an additional 50,000 users per week system-wide and provide access to job-search resources 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Both these grants are intended to serve additional users and make a difference in their employment prospects.4
Sustainable Adoption Grants
Grants intended to foster and sustain adoption often focus on the community level. A grant to the West Virginia Future Generations Graduate School funds a community-based approach to promote adoption among low-income and rural residents of the state.5 This particular project creates a partnership between fire and emergency rescue squads and the community. The squads will use computers that will also be made available to the public. At the same time, they will promote outreach about and awareness of the Internet’s potential to members of the community—adopters and non-adopters alike. Training programs will build capacity and confidence with the Internet and, it is hoped, foster at-home adoption.
BTOP was designed as a short-term investment in broadband infrastructure, broadband adoption and job creation. At the same time, Congress charged the FCC with developing a long-term plan for increasing accessibility, affordability and utilization of broadband, as well as a plan to use broadband to serve designated national purposes—a charge that led to the creation of this plan. In addition to deploying infrastructure and providing resources to communities, BTOP-funded projects can serve as testbeds. Examining projects funded under BTOP can help answer these questions:
- What leads individuals and communities to adopt broadband?
- What quantifiable difference does broadband make in communities?
- What is the impact of broadband on economic development in communities?
- How does the "broadband experience" vary by community, demographics and institutions?
Congress did not allocate funds to assess BTOP’s effectiveness. It did allocate $10 million to the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Office of Inspector General for oversight and auditing of the program. Such oversight and auditing activities are important, but they focus on execution of the program. Assessing program impacts on a community or on individuals or groups is different.6
The plan makes the following recommendations for assessing the BTOP program, some of which may require action by NTIA and some of which may require that NTIA coordinate with the research community:
Recommendation A.1: Ensure that assessment tracks program outcomes, not only execution.
Recommendations for how to assess BTOP must take into account the program’s multiple goals (as discussed above). BTOP infrastructure grants have a primary goal of making broadband service more available, typically with a secondary goal of promoting economic development. Moreover, BTOP grants for sustainable adoption have the goal of bolstering adoption rates among individuals.
Any assessment should at a minimum determine whether a grantee carried out the project funded by its grant in the time horizon specified. This kind of assessment can be completed in a relatively short period of time.
Thereafter, the assessment should focus on whether the grant had a meaningful impact in the context for which funding was specified. This is a longer-term undertaking and recognizes that the proper basis to assess a program that promises to fund infrastructure is not simply to determine whether the grantee in fact built the infrastructure. The first step in this assessment must be to ascertain whether the grant itself was responsible for the new infrastructure, or whether the infrastructure would likely have been built anyway within a reasonable time period. While it is impossible to know this with any certainty, assessors could identify control groups against which to measure the potential for this result. Such control groups might include projects (or areas) that were not funded and, if possible, geographically or socioeconomically similar areas that submitted no BTOP applications.
Once control groups are identified, assessors should measure whether the infrastructure built with BTOP grant money fostered economic growth, how additional adoption impacted users’ lives or other relevant metrics. Similarly, a PCC project with a goal of placing more computers at a specific site should not be considered successful simply if it increases the number of computers at a particular location. Instead, the success of a PCC project depends, instead, on its precise impacts—whether those additional computers helped more people go online for the first time, allowed computer users to spend more productive time online and materially improved a users’ lives. In assessing these impacts, NTIA should develop measures that determine the grantees’ cost of adding new adopters.
Recommendation A.2: Develop measures that specify outcomes to be assessed.
Assessing outcomes requires well-defined measures for programs. An infrastructure program may seek to foster economic growth or better connectivity among particular institutions. Whatever the goal, common measures across individual grants are necessary for proper evaluation of the BTOP program as a whole. The process of developing metrics should be done in coordination with other government-wide initiatives to promote broadband infrastructure and adoption.
Recommendation A.3: Create a panel of experts from the academic and research community to advise on assessment approaches.
The Recovery Act's funding of broadband investment and adoption promotion has prompted some academic researchers to explore how effective such investments have been in other contexts.7 There is little empirical evidence on the impact of demand-side adoption programs, and evidence on infrastructure investments is thin as well. As researchers explore the limits of the current assessment literature, a discussion has developed about the kind of evidence, metrics and methods needed to undertake rigorous assessment. NTIA should take advantage of this discussion by convening an expert panel and having the panel coordinate with other experts within the government.
Recommendation A.4: Employ longitudinal design in assessing programs where possible.
When feasible, assessments should compare outcomes from the beginning of an award’s life to a date in the future. Proper assessment of newly connected anchor institutions in an infrastructure grant would take a baseline reading of the institutions’ characteristics at the time the grant is made and at periodic intervals time periods into the future. The characteristics to be measured will depend on specification of proper metrics.
Longitudinal design takes into account the fact that the impacts of BTOP grants are likely to unfold over a longer time horizon than the period of the grant itself. The impact of a sustainable adoption grant on an individual who may have passed through a training program can only be determined at some point after the individual has completed the program. Similarly, the proper way to determine the impact of an infrastructure grant is to compare conditions at some point (or several points) beyond completion of deployment of the infrastructure.
Finally, assessment approaches should take into consideration the context of programs under study. Infrastructure projects may have fewer measurement challenges than programs which more directly affect users. If so, program assessment for user-centric grants may need to study program strategies to reach users as well as outcomes for those users. This, in turn, may mean that proper assessment should employ qualitative research approaches as well as quantitative ones.
APPENDIX B – COMMON ABBREVIATIONS
|AIP||Administrative Incentive Pricing|
|ALI||Automated Location Information|
|AMI||Advanced Metering Infrastructure|
|AMT||Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry|
|APD||Advance Planning Document|
|API||Application Programming Interface|
|ATC||Ancillary Terrestrial Component|
|AWS||Advanced Wireless Services|
|BAS||Mobile Broadcast Auxiliary Service|
|BAWG||Broadband Accessibility Working Group|
|BDIA||Broadband Data Improvement Act|
|BIP||Broadband Infrastructure Program|
|BIS||Department for Business, Innovation and Skills|
|BLS||Bureau of Labor Statistics|
|BMAC||Broadband Measurement Advisory Council|
|BRS||Broadband Radio Service|
|BSC||Broadband Strategy Council|
|BTOP||Broadband Technology Opportunities Program|
|CAF||Connect America Fund|
|CARS||Mobile Cable TV Relay Service|
|CCHT||Care Coordination/Home Telehealth|
|CDC||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|CEDS||Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy|
|CFF||Computers for Families|
|CIO||Chief Information Officer|
|CIP||Critical Infrastructure Protection|
|CIRS||Cybersecurity Information Reporting System|
|CITI||Columbia Institute for Tele-Information|
|CMS||Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services|
|CNCS||Corporation for National and Community Service|
|CPE||Customer premises equipment|
|CSEA||Commercial Spectrum Enhancement Act|
|CT||Scan Computed tomography scan|
|DARPA||Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency|
|DHS||Department of Homeland Security|
|DIA||Dedicated Internet Access|
|DOCSIS||Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification|
|DoD||Department of Defense|
|DOE||Department of Energy|
|DOJ||Department of Justice|
|DOL||Department of Labor|
|DOT||Department of Transportation|
|DS1||Digital Signal 1|
|DS3||Digital Signal 3|
|DSL||Digital Subscriber Line|
|DSLAM||Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer|
|DSRC||Dedicated short-range communication|
|DTA||Digital Transport Adapter|
|DTS||Distributed Transmission System|
|EAS||Emergency Alert System|
|EBS||Educational Broadband Service|
|ECPA||Electronic Communications Privacy Act|
|EDA||Economic Development Administration|
|EHR||Electronic health record|
|EISA||Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007|
|EMEA||Europe, the Middle East and Asia|
|EPSCoR||Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research|
|ERC||Engineering Research Center|
|ERIC||Emergency Response Interoperability Center|
|ET||Engineering and Technology|
|ETC||Eligible telecommunications carrier|
|FCC||Federal Communications Commission|
|FDA||Food and Drug Administration|
|FDIC||Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation|
|FERC||Federal Energy Regulatory Commission|
|FHS||Framingham Heart Study|
|FISMA||Federal Information Security Management Act|
|FLVS||Florida Virtual Schools|
|FOIA||Freedom of Information Act|
|FS-ISAC||Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center|
|FTC||Federal Trade Commission|
|GAO||Government Accountability Office|
|Gbps||Gigabits per second|
|GDP||Gross domestic product|
|GED||General Educational Development|
|GPS||Global Positioning System|
|GPT||General Purpose Technology|
|GSA||General Services Administration|
|GWU||George Washington University|
|HBCUs||Historically Black Colleges and Universities|
|HHS||Health and Human Services|
|HIPAA||Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act|
|HITECH||Act Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act|
|HL7||CDA Health Level 7 Clinical Document Architecture|
|HPSA||Gealth professional shortage area|
|HSIACs||Hispanic-Serving Institutions Assisting Communities|
|HSPA||High Speed Packet Access|
|HUD||Department of Housing and Urban Development|
|IAS||Interstate Access Support|
|IC3||Internet Crime Complaint Center|
|ICAM||Identity, Credential, and Access Management|
|ICLS||Interstate Common Line Support|
|ICO||Implementation Coordination Office|
|ICT||Information and communications technology|
|IHS||Indian Health Service|
|ILEC||Incumbent local exchange carrier|
|IMLS||Institute of Museum and Library Services|
|IPAWS||Integrated Public Alert and Warning System|
|IPC||Informatization Promotion Committee|
|IPIA||Improper Payments Information Act|
|ISAC||Information Sharing and Analysis Center|
|ISM||Industrial, scientific and medical|
|ISO||Independent System Operator (ISO)|
|ISP||Internet service provider|
|IT-ISAC||Information Technology Information Sharing and Analysis Center|
|ITS||Intelligent Transportation System|
|ITU||International Telecommunication Union|
|JFO||Joint Field Office|
|K-12||Kindergarten through twelfth grade|
|kbps||Kilobits per second|
|LEA||Local educational agency|
|LEC||Local exchange carrier|
|LEED||Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design|
|LMRS||Land mobile radio system|
|LSTA||Library Services and Technology Act|
|LTE||Long Term Evolution|
|Mbps||Megabits per second|
|Mpg||Miles per gallon|
|MRI||Magnetic resonance imaging|
|MSA||Metropolitan service area|
|MS-ISAC||Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center|
|MSS||Mobile Satellite Services|
|MVPD||Multichannel video programming distributor|
|NARUC||National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners|
|NASA||National Aeronautics and Space Administration|
|NATOA||National Association of Telecommunications Officers and Advisors|
|NCS||National Communications System|
|NECA||National Exchange Carrier Association|
|NERC||North American Electric Reliability Corporation|
|NG911||Next Generation 911|
|NHTSA||National Highway Traffic Safety Administration|
|NIA||National Institute on Aging|
|NIH||National Institutes of Health|
|NIST||National Institute of Standards and Technology|
|NOFA||Notice of Funding Availability|
|NPR||National Public Radio|
|NPRM||Notice of Proposed Rulemaking|
|NS/EP||National Security/Emergency Preparedness|
|NSF||National Science Foundation|
|NTIA||National Telecommunications and Information Administration|
|OATS||Older Adults Technology Services|
|OEC||Office of Emergency Communications|
|OECD||Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development|
|Ofcom||Office of Communications|
|OMB||Office of Management and Budget|
|ONC||Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology|
|OSL||Online Skills Laboratory|
|OSTP||Office of Science and Technology Policy|
|PBS||Public Broadcasting Service|
|PCC||Public computing center|
|PCS||Personal Communications Service|
|Portable Document Format|
|PET||Positron emission tomography|
|PHEV||Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|PISA||Programme for International Student Assessment|
|POTS||Plain Old Telephone Service|
|PSAP||Public safety answering point|
|PSBL||Public Safety Broadband Licensee|
|PSTN||Public Switched Telephone Network|
|PUC||Public utility commission|
|R&D||Research and development|
|R&E||Research and Experimentation or|
|RC||Renewal Community research and education|
|RFP||Request for Proposal|
|RSA||Rural service area|
|RUS||Rural Utilities Service|
|SBA||Small Business Administration|
|SBDC||Small Business Development Center|
|SBTDC||Small Business Technology Development Center|
|SCORE||Service Corps of Retired Executives|
|SCTCA||Southern California Tribal Chairmen’s Association|
|SDARS||Satellite Digital Audio Radio|
|SDB||Small disadvantaged business|
|SDV||Switched Digital Video|
|SFN||Single Frequency Network|
|SIM||Subscriber Identity Module|
|SLA||Service Level Agreement|
|SLC||Subscriber line charge|
|SMB||Small or medium-sized business|
|SME||Small and medium enterprise|
|SMS||Short Message Service|
|SOAR||Specialist Optimization Access and Results|
|SSA||Social Security Administration|
|SSI||Supplemental Security Income|
|STEM||Science, technology, engineering and mathematics|
|TANF||Temporary Assistance for Needy Families|
|TCUs||Tribal Colleges and Universities|
|TLBC||Tribal Land Bidding Credit|
|TOP||Technology Opportunity Program|
|TRS||Telecommunications Relay Services|
|TSA||Transportation Security Administration|
|UCAN||Unified Community Anchor Network|
|UHF||Ultra high frequency|
|USAC||Universal Service Administrative Company|
|USCIS||U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services|
|USDA||U.S. Department of Agriculture|
|USF||Universal Service Fund|
|VHA||Veterans Health Administration|
|VHF||Very high frequency|
|VoIP||Voice over Internet Protocol|
|WBC||Women’s Business Center|
|WCS||Wireless Communications Service|
|WiMAX||Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access|
|WISP||Wireless Internet service provider|
|WPS||Wireless Priority Service|
|WRC||World Radiocommunication Conference|
APPENDIX C – GLOSSARY1
AccelerometerAn electromechanical device that measures acceleration forces or motion.
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)Digital two-way communications hardware and software between smart meters and utility systems which can transmit energy usage, price, and control signals.
Air interfaceThe technical protocol that ensures compatibility between mobile radio service equipment, such as handsets, and the service provider’s base stations.
Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC)A ground-based infrastructure in a mobile satellite system to enhance the coverage of the satellite network.
BackhaulThe telecommunications link used to transport traffic from a geographically distant point, such as a wireless base station, to a significant aggregation point in the network, such as a mobile telephone switching office or Internet peering point.
BluetoothAn industry standard using unlicensed radio frequency spectrum for wireless connectivity over short distances to link computers, wireless handsets, and other devices.
CableCARDA credit card-sized device that contains the video provider’s security information. When this card is plugged into a set-top box, it enables customers to access the video programming and services to which they have subscribed.
Carrier of last resortThe carrier that commits (or is required by law) to provide service to any customer in a service area that requests it, even if serving that customer would not be economically viable at prevailing rates.
Census blockThe smallest geographic unit for which the Census Bureau collects and tabulates decennial census data.
Census tractA small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county, designed to contain roughly 1,000 to 8,000 people who are relatively homogeneous with respect to their demographics, economic status and living conditions.
ChurnThe number of customers who leave a service provider over a given period of time, usually expressed as a percentage of total customers.
Commercial Mobile Alert SystemA system established by the Commission that allows wireless service providers choosing to participate to send emergency alerts as text messages to their subscribers.
Commercial Mobile Radio ServiceA mobile communications service that is provided for profit and makes interconnected service available to the public, usually in the form of mobile phone service.
Common carrierA telecommunications provider, such as a telephone company, that offers its services for a fee to the public indiscriminately.
Competitive Local Exchange CarrierA company that offers local telephone service in competition with the legacy telephone company.
Conditional accessEncrypting digital television services (e.g. premium channels) to limit access to authorized users.
Credentialing (or certification)The process of establishing the qualifications of licensed professionals (e.g. physicians and teachers), organizational members, or organizations, and assessing their background and legitimacy.
Dark fiberA fiber optic cable that is laid and ready for use, but for which the service provider has not provided modulating electronics; usually contrasted to lit fiber, which is fiber optic cable in use to provide wired communications.
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) A standard for the transmission of data over a cable network.
Emergency Alert System (EAS)A national public warning system that requires broadcasters, cable television systems, wireless cable systems, satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) providers, and direct broadcast satellite (DBS) providers to provide the communications capability to the President to address the American public during a national emergency. The system also may be used by state and local authorities to deliver important emergency information, such as AMBER alerts and weather information targeted to specific areas.
EncumberedSpectrum that is burdened with occupancy, usage or congestion limitations or licenses that are subject to obligations or restrictions.
EthernetA type of digital transmission service. Traditionally, Ethernet operates at 10 megabits per second (Mbps) (also known as 10-Base-T), although 100-Base-T (100 Mbps) and Gigabit (1,000 Mbps) Ethernet are also available.
Extension armA support arm that extends from a telephone pole to hold communications lines at the same level as existing lines which are attached to the pole.
Gateway deviceA network device that acts as an entrance to another network and often is used to connect two otherwise incompatible networks.
Grid computingThe linking of two or more computers in a way that allows efficient use of available resources. For example, grid computing could store a single database across multiple servers to allow efficient use of unused storage and parallel processing of database queries.
Independent System Operator (ISO)An organization that coordinates, controls, and monitors the operation of the electrical power system, either within a single state or across multiple states.
Information serviceThe offering of a capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications.
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)A broad range of advanced communications technologies that, when integrated into transportation infrastructure and vehicles, relieves congestion, improves safety, and mitigates environmental impact.
Internet gatewayThe closest peering point between a broadband provider and the public Internet for a given consumer connection. See diagram below.
Linear channelVideo content that is delivered in a scheduled mode, such as through broadcast or cable network channels. Internet video (and other platforms such as Video On Demand, or VOD), on the other hand, delivers content upon request and often with pause/rewind/fast-forward capability.
LoopThe connection from the network central office to the customers’ premises.
MicrocellCell sites with extremely limited, but targeted, coverage. Microcells may provide indoor coverage in skyscrapers or may be placed in fire trucks, police cars and ambulances.
Mobile Earth StationAn earth station in the mobile-satellite service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points.
ModemA piece of customer premise equipment typically managed by a broadband provider as the last connection point to the managed network.
MulticastSimultanous transmission of information/data to multiple receipients.
Multichannel Video Programming Distributor (MVPD)An entity that makes available for purchase, by subscribers or customers, multiple channels of video programming.
Multi-Frequency Network (MFN)A network in which multiple stations consolidate their capacity and broadcast over different channels at different sites and times, similar to a frequency re-use pattern employed by mobile operators to avoid interference between cell sites.
Must-carryA requirement that cable operators cablecast the broadcast signals of local commercial television stations that request carriage.
Near-Field communications deviceA short-range high frequency wireless communication technology which enables simple two-way data interactions between devices.
Next Generation 911 (NG911)An emergency response system that integrates the core functionalities of the E911 system and also supports multimedia communications (such as texting, e-mail, and video) to the PSAP and to emergency personnel on the ground.
Notice of InquiryA proceeding initiated by a federal agency to gather facts and public comment on an issue within the responsibility of the agency, which may lead to a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM)A notice containing a proposal for adoption of new rules. The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) requires that an agency, before promulgating a binding rule, must publish general notice of its proposal in the Federal Register.
OffloadShifting telecommunications traffic from one network to another to relieve network congestion.
Open sourceA software development model by which the source code to a computer program is made available publicly under a license that gives users the right to modify and redistribute the program.
Out-of-band emission (OOBE)Any frequency outside of the frequency ranges covered by the adjacent channel power tables found in section 27.53 of the Commission’s rules.
Over-builderA facilities-based provider of cable service, telecommunications, or broadband that builds in an area already served by another facilities-based provider.
Overlay auctionAn auction for licenses to unused portions of the spectrum already assigned to incumbent users.
Payload capacityThe amount of throughput possible using a given technology at certain specifications.
PenetrationThe homes that are connected to a network, usually provided as a percentage of homes passed.
Point of PresenceA physical location where a communications carrier allows other carriers to access its network.
Pole attachmentAny attachment by a cable television system or provider of communications service to a pole, duct, conduit, or right-of-way owned or controlled by a utility.
Private Branch ExchangePrivately owned switch. A commercial building may have a PBX to route calls within the building.
PrivilegingThe process health care organizations (predominantly hospitals) employ to authorize practitioners to provide specific services and procedures for their patients.
Protocol stackThe ordered set of protocol types used in communications networks. At the lowest level, the protocol defines the physical interaction of the network components; at the highest level, the protocol defines the applications interacting with users. A protocol stack is designed so that protocols in each layer of the stack are substitutable for each other without affecting protocols higher up the stack.
Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)A call center responsible for answering emergency calls and dispatching emergency services.
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)The legacy circuit-switched telephone network.
RadiodeterminationThe determination of the position, velocity or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of information relating to these parameters, by means of the propagation of radio waves.
RebandTo reconfigure the assignment of spectrum licenses regarding either who controls the license or how a licensee may use its spectrum.
Remote patient monitoringUsing devices and communications networks to remotely collect and send diagnostic data to a monitoring station for interpretation. For example, measuring blood pressure when a patient is at home.
Right-of-wayThe right to pass over or occupy a particular piece of land. For example, utilities generally receive rightsof- way from municipalities to erect and wire poles to carry electricity, telecommunications services, and cable service.
Secondary market (for spectrum)A mechanism for reapportioning allocated spectrum based on economic demand. The secondary market for spectrum enables licensees to lease their spectrum to third parties, which permits spectrum to flow more freely among users to the extent consistent with the Commission’s public interest objectives.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)An agreement between a user and a service provider defining the nature of the service provided and establishing metrics for that service, trouble reporting procedures and penalties if the service provider fails to perform.
Set-top boA stand-alone device that receives and decodes programming so that it may be displayed on a television. Settop boxes may be used to receive broadcast, cable, and satellite programming.
Side lobeDistribution of microwave energy outside the main beam. Side lobes are measured in both the horizontal (E-plane) and the vertical (H-plane) directions. Normally, the E-plane has higher sidelobes, i.e., more energy distributed outside the main beam.
Single Frequency Network (SFN)A network used in distributed transmission and differing from a cellular telephone system by using the same frequency in all adjacent cells.
Smart GridThe electric delivery network, from electrical generation to end-use customer, integrated with sensors, software, and two-way communications technologies to improve grid reliability, security, and efficiency.
Smart meterA digital meter (typically electric) located on the customer premises that records energy usage and has two-way communications capabilities with utility systems.
Spatial reuseAn efficiency measure that allows use of the same spectral link at the same time.
Subscriber Line Charge (SLC)A federally regulated monthly service charge assessed by telephone companies to pay for a portion of the local telephone wires, poles and other facilities used to connect a local telephone exchange.
Substantially Underserved Trust AreaA community on land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans (or on certain other trust lands), which the Secretary of the Interior has determined has a high need for the benefits of certain federal programs.
Sufferance basisThe use of spectrum with no legal claim to tenancy. Using spectrum on a sufferance basis means that the use is subject to preemption at any time by the licensee.
Switched Digital Video (SDV)A method of delivering video programming to subscribers in a given area only when at least one subscriber in that area actively requests that programming.
SwitchingThe process of connecting the transmission path that allows the calling party to connect to the called party.
Table of AllotmentsA list of which television stations may broadcast a digital or analog signal over a given band of spectrum in a given community. The tables may be found in sections 73.606(b) and 73.622(b) of the Commission’s rules.
Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS) A telephone service that enables persons with TTYs, individuals who use sign language and people who have speech and hearing disabilities to use telephone services by having a third party transmit and translate a call. Consumers can access these services by using, for example, video phones, computers, web-enabled devices, captioned telephones, and TTYs.
Teletype or telephone typewriterA type of machine that allows people with hearing or speech disabilities to communicate over the phone using a keyboard and a viewing screen.
TranscodingThe process of directly converting a digital media file or object from one format to another allowing one to view media that is otherwise not supported by his/her device.
TransportThe transmission facilities between the wire center or switch of an incumbent local exchange carrier and the wire center or switch of another carrier.
Use caseIn software engineering and systems analysis, a methodology used to identify, clarify, and organize system requirements as it responds to a request that originates from outside of that system.
Video descriptionThe insertion of audio-narrated descriptions of a television program’s key visual elements into natural pauses between the program’s dialogue so that the critical details of the information are accessible to persons with visual disabilities.
Video navigation deviceA piece of equipment used by consumers within their premises to receive multichannel video programming and other services offered over multichannel video programming systems Converter boxes, interactive equipment, and other.
Wireless Priority Service (WPS)A federal program that authorizes cellular communications service providers to prioritize calls over wireless networks. Participating service providers typically deploy WPS in stages until service is available in most coverage areas and functionality has reached full operating capability.
1The National Broadband Plan provides this glossary solely as a reader aid. These definitions do not necessarily represent the views of the FCC or the United States Government on past, present, or future technology, policy, or law and thus have no interpretive or precedential value.
APPENDIX D – LIST OF WORKSHOPS AND FIELD HEARINGS
The FCC held 36 public workshops in Washington, D.C. and nine field hearings across the country as part of an extensive effort to engage the public in crafting the National Broadband Plan. These workshops and hearings attracted more than 10,000 in-person and online attendees. The panelists for the workshops and hearings included FCC staff and commissioners, other government officials and representatives from consumer groups, service providers, broadcasters, manufacturers, application providers and many other companies and organizations. The transcripts and videos for these events are all part of the National Broadband Plan record and are available at www.broadband.gov.
||E-Gov/Civic Engagement Workshop||8/6/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|2||Deployment: Wired-General Workshop||8/12/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
||Deployment: Wireless-General Workshop||8/12/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
||Deployment: Unserved-Underserved Workshop||8/12/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|5||Technology/Fixed Broadband Workshop||8/13/2010||Federal Communications Commission|
|6||Technology/Wireless Workshop||8/13/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|7||International Lessons Workshop||8/18/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|8||Opportunities for Small and Disadvantaged Businesses Workshop||8/18/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|9||Building the Fact Base: The State of Broadband Adoption and Utilization Workshop||8/19/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|10||Low Adoption and Utilization: Importance of Broadband and Applications Workshop||8/19/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|11||Programmatic Efforts to Increase Broadband Adoption and Usage: What Works and What Doesn’t Workshop||8/19/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|12||Broadband Opportunities for People with Disabilities Workshop||8/20/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|13||Education Workshop||8/20/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|14||Public Safety and Homeland Security Workshop||8/25/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|15||Smart Grid, Broadband and Climate Change Workshop||8/25/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|16||Economic Growth, Job Creation and Private Investment Workshop||8/26/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|17||Job Training Workshop||8/26/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|18||Technology/Applications and Devices Workshop||8/27/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|19||State and Local Governments: Toolkits and Best Practices Workshop||9/1/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|20||Benchmarks Workshop||9/2/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|21||Big Ideas with Potential to Substantially Change the Internet Workshop||9/3/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|22||Broadband Consumer Context Workshop||9/9/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|23||Health Care Workshop||9/15/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|24||The Role of Content in the Broadband Ecosystem||9/17/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|25||Spectrum Workshop||9/17/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|26||Public Field Hearing, National Broadband Plan, FCC Commissioner Meredith Attwell Baker||9/21/2009||The Thompson Conference Center,
2405 Robert Dedman Drive
|27||Cybersecurity Workshop||9/30/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|28||FCC Hearing on Capital Formation in the Broadband Sector||10/1/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|29||Diversity and Civil Rights Issues In Broadband Deployment and Adoption Workshop||10/2/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|30||FCC Hearing on Broadband Adoption, Commissioners Mignon Clyburn and Michael Copps||10/6/2009||Trident Technical College
66 Columbus St.
|31||FCC Field Hearing: Mobile Applications and Spectrum||10/8/2009||Univ. of San Diego
5998 Alcala Park
San Diego, Calif.
|32||Economic Issues in Broadband Competition Workshop||10/9/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|33||Broadband Accessibility for People with Disabilities II: Barriers, Opportunities and Policy Recommendations Workshop||10/20/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|34||FCC Field Hearing on Broadband Access for People with Disabilities||11/6/2009||Gallaudet University
Kellogg Conference Center
800 Florida Ave. N.E.
|35||FCC Broadband Field Hearing on Improving Public Safety Communications and Emergency Response||11/12/2009||Georgetown University
3800 Reservoir Road N.W.
|36||Capitalization Strategies for Small and Disadvantaged Businesses Workshop||11/12/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|37||Future Fiber Architectures and Local Deployment Choices Workshop||11/19/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|38||Research Recommendations for the Broadband Taskforce Workshop||11/23/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|39||FCC Field Hearing on Energy and the Environment||11/30/2009||MIT Stratton Student Center
84 Massachusetts Ave.
|40||Lessons for the National Broadband Plan from Local Officials Representing Underserved Communities Workshop||12/9/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|41||Global Broadband Connects America and the World: Infrastructure, Services and Applications Workshop||12/10/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|42||Review and Discussion of Broadband Deployment Research Workshop||12/10/2009||Federal Communications Commission|
|43||FCC Field Hearing on Digital Inclusion||12/14/2009||National Civil Rights Museum Rose
Room 450 Mulberry St.
|44||FCC Broadband Field Hearing on Small Business||12/21/2009||Univ. of Chicago
450 N. Cityfront Plaza Drive
|45||Broadband and New Media Strategies for Minority Radio Workshop||1/26/2010||Federal Communications Commission|
APPENDIX E – LIST OF NATIONAL BROADBAND PLAN CONTRIBUTORS
The National Broadband Plan was created by the staff of the FCC
Omnibus Broadband Initiative
John Erik Garr
Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau
P. Michele Ellison
Mindel De La Torre
Linda Haller Sloan
Carrie Lee Early
Hsin Mei Hsu
Shelia S Crawley
Office of Communications Business Opportunities
Office of Engineering and Technology
Office of Legislative Affairs
Office of Managing Director
Haley Van Dyck
Office of Media Relations
Office of Strategic Planning and Policy Analysis
Paul de Sa
Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau
Jean Ann Collins
Wireless Telecommunications Bureau
Melvin Del Rosario
Chelsea Haga Fallon
Suzan B Friedman
Wireline Competition Bureau
Elizabeth Valinoti McCarthy
The staff of the FCC wishes to thank several contractors who supported the creation of the National Broadband Plan. Key contractors included: Umasankar Arumugam, Arnab Das, Ivan Djordjevic, Mark Guttman, Andrew Herman, Sarah Kellogg, Maria Lee, Vinay Oberoi, Glenda Rivas, James Stegeman, and Patricia Wheelock.
2 Nat’l Telecomm. & Information Admin. BTOP Project Information, http://www.ntia.doc.gov/broadbandgrants/projects.html (last visited Feb. 20, 2010).
3 Exec. Off. of the Pres., Nat’l Econ. Council, Recovery Act Investments in Broadband: Leveraging Federal Dollars to Create Jobs and Connect America (2009), available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/20091217-recovery-act-investments-broadband.pdf.
4 Nat’l Telecomm. & Information Admin., Secretary Locke Announces Recovery Act Grants to Expand Broadband Internet Access and Spur Economic Growth (press release), Feb. 18, 2010, available at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/press/2010/02182010_Locke_BTOP_Announcement.pdf.
5 Nat’l Telecomm. & Information Admin., Secretary Locke Announces Recovery Act Grants to Expand Broadband Internet Access and Spur Economic Growth (press release), Feb. 18, 2010.
6 Scott J. Wallsten, Measuring the Effectiveness of the Broadband Stimulus Plan, The Economists’ Voice 6:6, art. 3 (2009).
7 Janice Hauge & James Prieger, Demand-side Programs to Stimulate Adoption: What Works? (Oct. 22, 2009) (unpublished working paper), available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1492342